LEARN HTML PART 1
Computer Education Computer Notes HTML VS Computer Education

LEARN HTML | HTML PART 1 | LEARN COMPUTER

HTML – HYPER TEXT MARKUP LANGUAGE

INTRODUCTION

Internet has become one of the major sources of information these days. Information can be easily retrieved with the help of internet by just few clicks. The collection of information is stored in various web pages or web servers. To design these web pages or web servers a specialized language is used called HTML ( Hyper Text Markup Language ).

HTML

HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. Hyper Text provides a link that will be hyper as we click on it. When we click on the hyper text, a link is open either in the same window or in a separate window. Markup tags tell the browser how to display the data on the web pages. Language is plain English text composed of tags and attributes. HTML is a subset of SGML ( Standard Generalized Markup Language ) which contains a set of predefined markup codes that are used to define the layout of a web document. These web documents are distributed on the World Wide Web (WWW ) with the help of HTTP ( Hyper Text Transfer Protocol ).

History of HTML

HTML is a subset of SGML that was developed by the International Organization for Standards in 1986. But due to various reasons SGML is not so useful for the internet and many types of computers. HTML is invented along with the benefits of SGML for creating web documents that can be easily transmitted over the internet. HTML was developed by Tim Burners Lee in Nov, 1990. It was the first version of the HTML which laid the foundation of the World Wide Web.

HTML Versions

  • HTML 1.0: released in 1991
  • HTML 2.0: released in 1995
  • HTML 3.2: released in 1997
  • HTML 4.01: released in 1999
  • XHTML 1.0: released in 2000
  • XHTML 1.1: released in 2001
  • HTML5: released in 2014

Features of HTML

  • It has the ability to create richer forms.
  • It is not a programming language. It is a markup language.
  • It provides more flexible way to create web pages.
  • It consists of tags and attributes.
  • It is based on simple English language.
  • A web page created with HTML has ‘.htm’ or ‘.html’ extension.
  • It is a cross platform language and HTML documents can be viewed on any type of computer platform.
  • It requires just a text editor for coding such as Notepad.
  • It requires just a web browser for display the result such as Internet Explorer.
  • It is not case sensitive.

Basic Terminology of HTML

Web Pages

A web page is a hypertext document stored on a remote web server which contains information in the form of text, graphics, images, video, etc.

Web Browser

Web Browser is client based application which interact with the web server to see the required web pages from the web server. E.g: -Internet Explorer, Google Chorme, Mozila Firefox, Opera, Safari, Netscape etc.

Web Server

A Web Server is a program which accepts request from the client and responds to the client’s request.

Web Client

A Web Client is a program which send request to the web server.

URL

It is called Uniform Resource Locator. It contains the site address and protocol.

Tags

Tags are coded HTML command that indicates how the part of web page should be displayed. Tags are written in angular brackets. Tags are of two types – 1. Empty Tag and Container Tag.

Container Tag

The Container tag or elements requires both starting and ending tag to specify their presentation on the web page.

E.g: – <Html> ………………………………… </Html>

Empty Tag

The Empty tag or elements are those tags which do not requires an ending tag.

E.g: – <hr>, <br> etc.

Attributes

Attributes are used to change the default behavior of a Tag means they defines our tags well. These are written inside the tag.

E.g: – <body bgcolor=”red”>.

An HTML Document

The HTML document are plain text files. The code of these documents is created using a text editor like Notepad. HTML document is always saved in .htm or .html extention. The basic structure of the HTML document is divided into two section i.e. Head and Body.

Head Section

This section appears in the beginning of the HTML document. It contains description, index and name of program used to create the document.

Body Section

This is the main and largest section of the web document. It contains all the information that displayed on the web page when we open in the web browser. This information can be in the form of text, graphics, audio, images, video etc. All the attributes and tag related to information used in body section

Basic Structure of HTML Document

As we all know that every document has its basic structure while it created. In the same way we have HTML basic structure that is followed is followed to create HTML document. This document structure has four structural tags i.e. <HTML>, <HEAD>, <TITLE> and <BODY> tag.

The general format of HTML document is like this:

<HTML>

            <HEAD>

                        <TITLE> Here we can write the title of the web page. </TITLE>

            </HEAD>

<BODY>

Contents of the web page are written here.

</BODY>

</HTML>

<HTML> Tag

Every HTML document starts with <HTML> tag. The <HTML> element is the root element of an HTML page. It is a container tag and the closing element. It means that entire document is enclosed by <HTML> tag. This tag helps the browser to identify the document as an HTML document.

<HEAD> Tag

This is another container tag which is used to define the header section of the web page. It is the first tag that appears between the <HTML> elements.  This contains the information about the HTML document. For Example, Title of the page, version of HTML, Meta Data and page CSS etc. All the HTML elements that can be used inside the <head> element are: 
 

  • <style>
  • <title>
  • <base>
  • <noscript>
  • <script>
  • <meta>

<TITLE> Tag

This tag is used to set the title of the document. It is a container tag used in between the <HEAD> element. The information enclosed by the <TITLE> element appears in the title bar of the browser window.

<BODY> Tag

The <body> element defines the document’s body, and is a container for all the visible contents, such as headings, paragraphs, images, hyperlinks, tables, lists, etc. This container tag encloses the entire page contents along with the associated tags that are displayed on the web page, when it is viewed in the web browser window. This tag starts after the <HEAD> tag and is closed before the closing of the <HTML> element.

Creating and Saving HTML Document

Now we have to create an HTML document with its default setting. We will use Notepad editor to create out document.

To Open Notepad

  • Click on the Start button.
  • Choose All Programs option.
  • Now choose Accessories option.
  • Click on Notepad option in it.

Now type the following HTML code in the blank Notepad document:

<html>

<head>

<title> VS Computer Education </title>

</head>

<body>

Hello World !!!

Welcome to the HMTL.

This is my first web page in HTML.

</body>

</html>

Now we need to save this document.

To Save the HTML Document

  • Click on the File menu.
  • Click on Save option.
  • Save As dialog box will appear.
  • Select the location where we want to save our document.
  • Enter the name ‘index.html’ in the file name box.
  • Click to Save button.

The document will be saved at the selected location and is now to ready to be viewed in the browser window.

Viewing HTML Document

HTML document can be viewed using web browser application. There are many web browsers which are commonly used like : Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, Safari, Netscape etc. each of them their own features. Windows Internet Explorer come free with the Windows Operating System software. Let us use this browser to view our HTML web page.

To Start Windows Internet Explorer

  • Click on the Start button
  • Choose All Programs option.
  • Choose Internet Explorer option in it.

The Internet Explorer Window will appear on screen as shown like this:

To Open Our HTML Web Page

  • Click on File menu and choose Open option in it.
  • An Open dialog box will appear on the screen.
  • Click Browse button in the dialog box.
  • Now open the saved document from the place where we save it.
  • Select the File from the list.
  • Click Open button on to the Open dialog box.
  • Click on OK button.

The Web Page will appear in the browser window.

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