Computer Education Computer Notes VS Computer Education

Computer Fundamentals Short | Part 1

What is Booting?

When we start or shutdown the computer process is called booting.

Booting divided in two parts: –

  • Cold Booting
  • Hot Booting

Cold Booting

When we shutdown the computer process is called cold booting.

Hot / Warm Booting

When we restart the computer process is called hot booting.


The word ‘Computer’ comes from the Latin word “COMPUTERAE” meaning “Compute”. As the name suggests Computer.

What is Computer?

Computer is an electronic device which takes data, processes according to the given instruction and gives results. These results are always correct, provided the given data and instruction is correct.

Who is the Father of Computer?

Charles Babbage is the father of computer.

Full form of computer

C             –              Common

O             –              Operating

M            –              Machine

P             –              Particularly

U             –              Used for

T              –              Technology

E              –              Electronic

R             –              Research             

Computer divided into two parts: –

Hardware and Software                               

What is Hardware?

The part of the computer that we can touch is called hardware. CPU, Monitor, Keyboard and Mouse are the example of computer hardware.

What is Software?

The part of computer that we cannot touch is called software. MS-Paint, Notepad and MS-Office are the example of computer software.

Generations of Computer

The word generations of computer refers to different hardware technology used in the computers. It provides a framework of the growth in the computer industry. The referring of computers in term of generations came into wide use only after 1946. There are in total five generations of computer till today.

First Generation Computers – ( 1946-54)

The first generation of computer is marked by the use of vacuum tubes.

Example : – ENIAC, EDSAC, EDVAC.

Second Generation Computers – ( 1954-64 )

The second generation of computers is marked by the use of transistors in the place of vacuum tubes.

Example : – IBM 700, ATLAS and ICL 1901

Third Generation of Computers – ( 1964-80 )

The third generation of computers is marked by the use of Integration Circuits ( IC ) in the place of transistors.

Example : – IBM360 Series, Honeywell-6000 Series, IBM-370

Forth Generation Computers – ( 1980-up to present )

The fourth generation of computer is marked by the use of Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits in the place of integration circuits (IC).

Fifth Generation Computers

The fifth generation computers are under development. Japan and USA have undertaken to design and develop such computers. It appears that the fifth generation computers will have at least three important characteristics: –

Mega Chip Memory

The ability to extensive use of parallel processing, and

Artificial Intelligence

Classification of computers

On the basis of technology used, computers can be classified into following three types: –

Digital Computers

Analog Computers

Hybrid Computers

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